Beginner
10 min

Add ZigBee wireless communication into your projects with XB24CZ7PIS-004 and PIC18LF45K40

Provide wireless connectivity to end-point devices in ZigBee mesh networks

XBEE Click with EasyPIC v8

Published Mar 09, 2024

Click board™

XBEE Click

Dev Board

EasyPIC v8

Compiler

NECTO Studio

MCU

PIC18LF45K40

High-performance XBee® RF module for extensive indoor and outdoor range, ensuring robust and globally accepted network solutions for energy and control systems

A

A

Hardware Overview

How does it work?

XBee Click is based on the XB24CZ7PIS-004, a low-power Digi XBee® RF module from Digi International, providing wireless connectivity to end-point devices in ZigBee mesh networks. The transceiver chipset of the XB24CZ7PIS-004 is based on the Ember Silicon Labs EM357 SoC with an RF data rate of 250kbps (serial up to 1Mbps) and advanced configuration options available via simple AT or API commands. It also supports low-power sleeping nodes and has an outdoor RF line-of-sight range of up to 1.2km (urban range of up to 60m) in a combination of coverage, data redundancy, and data reliability. The XB24CZ7PIS-004 module has worldwide acceptance. Operating at a frequency of 2.4GHz, it allows its application in the US, Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. The ZigBee module also supports various security levels that are configured depending on the application's needs. This Click board™ comes with a configurable host interface allowing communication with MCU using the chosen interface. The XB24CZ7PIS-004 can communicate

with MCU using the UART interface with commonly used UART RX, TX, and hardware flow control pins UART CTS and RTS (Clear to Send and Ready to Send) or using the SPI interface (XBee module will work as an SPI-slave only). The module can be configured locally through serial commands (AT or API) or remotely through remote API commands to set or read any network device's configuration settings. In the case of the SPI interface, the users can use it to configure the module and write the library by themselves. XBee Click is associated with many other features. An active-low reset signal routed on the RST pin of the mikroBUS™ socket activates a hardware reset of the system, while the A/D pin routed on the INT pin of the mikroBUS™ socket represents a type of interrupt whose function can be selected by positioning an onboard SMD jumper to an appropriate position labeled as DTR or ATT. DTR position is a "Data terminal ready" function used to tell the XBee module that the host MCU is ready to communicate, while the ATT position (SPI Attention) represents an indicator

for the SPI interface whenever the XBee module has data for the host MCU. Alongside firmware updates, it supports commissioning and LED behaviors; a commissioning pushbutton marked as COMMI combined with an ASSOC LED provides various simple functions to aid in deploying devices in a network, such as a device wake-up, broadcast transmission, and more. On the other side, the yellow ASSOC LED indicates the device's network status and diagnostics information. If the LED is constantly on, it means that the module is not connected to the network, while the standard flashing of the LED represents the normal operating mode. This Click board™ can be operated only with a 3.3V logic voltage level. The board must perform appropriate logic voltage level conversion before using MCUs with different logic levels. However, the Click board™ comes equipped with a library containing functions and an example code that can be used as a reference for further development.

XBEE Click hardware overview image

Features overview

Development board

EasyPIC v8 is a development board specially designed for the needs of rapid development of embedded applications. It supports many high pin count 8-bit PIC microcontrollers from Microchip, regardless of their number of pins, and a broad set of unique functions, such as the first-ever embedded debugger/programmer. The development board is well organized and designed so that the end-user has all the necessary elements, such as switches, buttons, indicators, connectors, and others, in one place. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology, EasyPIC v8 provides a fluid and immersive working experience, allowing access anywhere and under any

circumstances at any time. Each part of the EasyPIC v8 development board contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. In addition to the advanced integrated CODEGRIP programmer/debugger module, which offers many valuable programming/debugging options and seamless integration with the Mikroe software environment, the board also includes a clean and regulated power supply module for the development board. It can use a wide range of external power sources, including a battery, an external 12V power supply, and a power source via the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector.

Communication options such as USB-UART, USB DEVICE, and CAN are also included, including the well-established mikroBUS™ standard, two display options (graphical and character-based LCD), and several different DIP sockets. These sockets cover a wide range of 8-bit PIC MCUs, from the smallest PIC MCU devices with only eight up to forty pins. EasyPIC v8 is an integral part of the Mikroe ecosystem for rapid development. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping and development thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

EasyPIC v8 horizontal image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU

PIC18LF45K40

Architecture

PIC

MCU Memory (KB)

32

Silicon Vendor

Microchip

Pin count

40

RAM (Bytes)

2048

Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

UART RTS
RA2
AN
Reset
RE1
RST
SPI Chip Select
RE0
CS
SPI Clock
RC3
SCK
SPI Data OUT
RC4
MISO
SPI Data IN
RC5
MOSI
Power Supply
3.3V
3.3V
Ground
GND
GND
UART CTS
RC0
PWM
Data Ready Indicator
RB0
INT
UART TX
RC6
TX
UART RX
RC7
RX
NC
NC
SCL
NC
NC
SDA
NC
NC
5V
Ground
GND
GND
1

Take a closer look

Schematic

XBEE Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

EasyPIC v8 front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the EasyPIC v8 as your development board.

EasyPIC v8 front image hardware assembly
Buck 22 Click front image hardware assembly
MCU DIP 40 hardware assembly
EasyPIC v8 DIP MB 1 - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
NECTO Compiler Selection Step Image hardware assembly
NECTO Output Selection Step Image hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Necto DIP image step 7 hardware assembly
Necto image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Necto PreFlash Image hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After pressing the "FLASH" button on the left-side panel, it is necessary to open the UART terminal to display the achieved results. By clicking on the Tools icon in the right-hand panel, multiple different functions are displayed, among which is the UART Terminal. Click on the offered "UART Terminal" icon.

UART Application Output Step 1

Once the UART terminal is opened, the window takes on a new form. At the top of the tab are two buttons, one for adjusting the parameters of the UART terminal and the other for connecting the UART terminal. The tab's lower part is reserved for displaying the achieved results. Before connecting, the terminal has a Disconnected status, indicating that the terminal is not yet active. Before connecting, it is necessary to check the set parameters of the UART terminal. Click on the "OPTIONS" button.

UART Application Output Step 2

In the newly opened UART Terminal Options field, we check if the terminal settings are correct, such as the set port and the Baud rate of UART communication. If the data is not displayed properly, it is possible that the Baud rate value is not set correctly and needs to be adjusted to 115200. If all the parameters are set correctly, click on "CONFIGURE".

UART Application Output Step 3

The next step is to click on the "CONNECT" button, after which the terminal status changes from Disconnected to Connected in green, and the data is displayed in the Received data field.

UART Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for XBEE Click driver.

Key functions:

  • xbee_get_serial_number - This function sends a get serial number command

  • xbee_set_device_name - This function sets the device name (node identifier)

  • xbee_set_destination_address - This function sets the destination address high and low bytes

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

/*!
 * @file main.c
 * @brief XBEE Click Example.
 *
 * # Description
 * This example demonstrates the use of an XBEE click board by showing
 * the communication between the two click boards configured in transparent mode.
 *
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 *
 * ## Application Init
 * Initializes the driver and configures the click board by performing a factory reset, 
 * and setting the device name, destination address, and api mode to transparent.
 *
 * ## Application Task
 * Depending on the selected application mode, it reads all the received data or 
 * sends the desired message every 3 seconds.
 *
 * ## Additional Function
 * - static void xbee_clear_app_buf ( void )
 * - static err_t xbee_process ( void )
 * - static err_t xbee_display_rsp ( uint16_t timeout )
 *
 * @author Stefan Filipovic
 *
 */

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "xbee.h"

// Device name (Node identifier).
#define DEVICE_NAME                 "XBEE Click"

// Enter here the specific serial number high and low bytes of the remote device as a hex string or 
// leave it set to broadcast addresses for forwarding messages to all devices
#define DESTINATION_ADDRESS_HIGH    XBEE_BROADCAST_DEST_ADDRESS_HIGH
#define DESTINATION_ADDRESS_LOW     XBEE_BROADCAST_DEST_ADDRESS_LOW

// Comment out the line below in order to switch the application mode to receiver
#define DEMO_APP_TRANSMITTER

// Text message to send in the transmitter application mode
#define DEMO_TEXT_MESSAGE           "MIKROE - XBEE click board\r\n"

// Application process buffer size
#define PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE         200

static xbee_t xbee;
static log_t logger;

static char app_buf[ PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ] = { 0 };
static int32_t app_buf_len = 0;

/**
 * @brief XBEE clearing application buffer.
 * @details This function clears memory of application buffer and reset its length and counter.
 * @note None.
 */
static void xbee_clear_app_buf ( void );

/**
 * @brief XBEE data reading function.
 * @details This function reads data from device and concatenates data to application buffer.
 * @return @li @c  0 - Read some data.
 *         @li @c -1 - Nothing is read.
 *         @li @c -2 - Application buffer overflow.
 * See #err_t definition for detailed explanation.
 * @note None.
 */
static err_t xbee_process ( void );

/**
 * @brief XBEE display response function.
 * @details This function reads data from device until it sends OK or ERROR message or until
 * it exceeds the timeout value.
 * @param[in] timeout : Timeout value in miliseconds.
 * @return @li @c  0 - Read some data.
 *         @li @c -1 - Nothing is read.
 * See #err_t definition for detailed explanation.
 * @note None.
 */
static err_t xbee_display_rsp ( uint16_t timeout );

void application_init ( void ) 
{
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;  /**< Logger config object. */
    xbee_cfg_t xbee_cfg;  /**< Click config object. */

    /** 
     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
     */
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_info( &logger, " Application Init " );

    // Click initialization.
    xbee_cfg_setup( &xbee_cfg );
    XBEE_MAP_MIKROBUS( xbee_cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    if ( UART_ERROR == xbee_init( &xbee, &xbee_cfg ) ) 
    {
        log_error( &logger, " Communication init." );
        for ( ; ; );
    }
    
    xbee_hw_reset ( &xbee );
    xbee_process( );
    xbee_clear_app_buf( );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Enter command mode -\r\n" );
    xbee_enter_command_mode ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Factory Reset -\r\n" );
    xbee_factory_reset ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Get serial number -\r\n" );
    xbee_get_serial_number ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Set Device Name -\r\n" );
    xbee_set_device_name ( &xbee, DEVICE_NAME );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Set Destination Address -\r\n" );
    xbee_set_destination_address ( &xbee, DESTINATION_ADDRESS_HIGH, DESTINATION_ADDRESS_LOW );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Set API mode -\r\n" );
    xbee_set_api_mode ( &xbee, XBEE_MODE_TRANSPARENT );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Apply changes -\r\n" );
    xbee_apply_changes ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 ); 
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Save changes -\r\n" );
    xbee_save_changes ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 );
    
    log_printf( &logger, " - Exit command mode -\r\n" );
    xbee_exit_command_mode ( &xbee );
    Delay_ms ( 100 );
    xbee_display_rsp ( 1000 ); 
    
    app_buf_len = 0;
    
#ifdef DEMO_APP_TRANSMITTER
    log_printf( &logger, " Application Mode: Transmitter\r\n" );
#else
    log_printf( &logger, " Application Mode: Receiver\r\n" );
#endif
    
    log_info( &logger, " Application Task " );
}

void application_task ( void ) 
{
#ifdef DEMO_APP_TRANSMITTER
    xbee_generic_write( &xbee, DEMO_TEXT_MESSAGE, strlen( DEMO_TEXT_MESSAGE ) );
    log_printf( &logger, "%s", ( char * ) DEMO_TEXT_MESSAGE );
    Delay_ms( 3000 ); 
#else
    xbee_process( );
    if ( app_buf_len > 0 ) 
    {
        log_printf( &logger, "%s", app_buf );
        xbee_clear_app_buf(  );
    }
#endif
}

int main ( void ) 
{
    application_init( );
    
    for ( ; ; ) 
    {
        application_task( );
    }

    return 0;
}

static void xbee_clear_app_buf ( void ) 
{
    memset( app_buf, 0, app_buf_len );
    app_buf_len = 0;
}

static err_t xbee_process ( void ) 
{
    int32_t rx_size;
    char rx_buf[ PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ] = { 0 };
    rx_size = xbee_generic_read( &xbee, rx_buf, PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE );
    if ( rx_size > 0 ) 
    {
        int32_t buf_cnt = 0;
        if ( ( app_buf_len + rx_size ) > PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ) 
        {
            xbee_clear_app_buf(  );
            return XBEE_ERROR;
        } 
        else 
        {
            buf_cnt = app_buf_len;
            app_buf_len += rx_size;
        }
        for ( int32_t rx_cnt = 0; rx_cnt < rx_size; rx_cnt++ ) 
        {
            if ( rx_buf[ rx_cnt ] != 0 ) 
            {
                app_buf[ ( buf_cnt + rx_cnt ) ] = rx_buf[ rx_cnt ];
            }
            else
            {
                app_buf_len--;
                buf_cnt--;
            }
        }
        return XBEE_OK;
    }
    return XBEE_ERROR;
}

static err_t xbee_display_rsp ( uint16_t timeout )
{
    uint16_t timeout_cnt = 0;
    xbee_process ( );
    while ( ( 0 == strstr( app_buf, XBEE_RSP_OK ) ) && 
            ( 0 == strstr( app_buf, XBEE_RSP_ERROR ) ) && 
            ( timeout_cnt++ < timeout ) )
    {
        xbee_process ( );
        Delay_ms ( 1 );
    }
    if ( app_buf_len > 0 )
    {
        for ( int32_t buf_cnt = 0; buf_cnt < app_buf_len; buf_cnt++ )
        {
            log_printf( &logger, "%c", app_buf[ buf_cnt ] );
        }
        xbee_clear_app_buf ( );
        log_printf( &logger, "--------------------------------\r\n" );
        return XBEE_OK;
    }
    return XBEE_ERROR;
}

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support

Resources