Intermediate
30 min

Revolutionize data acquisition and remote monitoring applications with MAX399 and MK51DN512CLQ10

One UART, four RS-232 friends: CMOS MUX marvel!

UART MUX 2 Click with UNI Clicker

Published Oct 07, 2023

Click board™

UART MUX 2 Click

Development board

UNI Clicker

Compiler

NECTO Studio

MCU

MK51DN512CLQ10

Optimize your UART interface and simplify serial data communication by implementing our CMOS analog multiplexer, allowing four remote RS-232 transceivers to efficiently share a single UART connection

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Hardware Overview

How does it work?

UART MUX 2 Click is based on the MAX399, a precise CMOS analog multiplexer that enables pseudo-multidrop RS232 transmission from Analog Devices. This multiplexer allows multiple channels, in this case, four, to share a single UART interface. It offers fast switching speeds with a transition time of less than 250ns and low on-resistance of less than 100Ω while retaining CMOS-logic input compatibility and fast switching. The dual four-to-one multiplexer permits transceiver MAX3221 to form a network with the four remote transceivers connected to terminals labeled as UART0-UART3 in the upper part of the Click board™. The circuit's supply-voltage range (3V to 5.5V) makes it compatible with 3V and 5V logic. MAX399 receives its power directly from the power terminals of MAX3221, whose ±5.5V outputs come

from an internal charge pump. The multiplexer handles rail-to-rail signals, so obtaining its power from MAX3221 ensures that RS232 signals pass directly through, regardless of amplitude. The UART MUX Click communicates with MCU through MAX3221 using the UART interface for the data transfer. The MAX3221 can run at data rates up to 250 kbps while maintaining RS232-compliant output levels. Channel selection is performed through a set of specific GPIO pins, labeled as A0 and A1, routed on the CS and RST pins of the mikroBUS™ socket. Selecting channel 1, for instance, enables MAX3221 to communicate with UART0 without being loaded by UART1 to UART3. Pulldown resistors inside the remote transceivers force the outputs of un-selected receivers to a known state. In addition to a

channel selection, this Click board™ also has an automatic power-down feature that can be turned off when ON and OFF pins are high, routed on the PWM and AN pins of the mikroBUS™ socket. Also, it uses the interrupt pin of the mikroBUS™ labeled as INV as an invalid indicator, making interfacing with the RS232 simple and easy, indicating whether a valid RS232 signal is present. This Click board™ can operate with either 3.3V or 5V logic voltage levels selected via the VCC SEL jumper. This way, both 3.3V and 5V capable MCUs can use the communication lines properly. Also, this Click board™ comes equipped with a library containing easy-to-use functions and an example code that can be used as a reference for further development.

UART MUX 2 Click top side image
UART MUX 2 Click bottom side image

Features overview

Development board

UNI Clicker is a compact development board designed as a complete solution that brings the flexibility of add-on Click boards™ to your favorite microcontroller, making it a perfect starter kit for implementing your ideas. It supports a wide range of microcontrollers, such as different ARM, PIC32, dsPIC, PIC, and AVR from various vendors like Microchip, ST, NXP, and TI (regardless of their number of pins), four mikroBUS™ sockets for Click board™ connectivity, a USB connector, LED indicators, buttons, a debugger/programmer connector, and two 26-pin headers for interfacing with external electronics. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology, it allows you to build

gadgets with unique functionalities and features quickly. Each part of the UNI Clicker development kit contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. In addition to the possibility of choosing the UNI Clicker programming method, using a third-party programmer or CODEGRIP/mikroProg connected to onboard JTAG/SWD header, the UNI Clicker board also includes a clean and regulated power supply module for the development kit. It provides two ways of board-powering; through the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector, where onboard voltage regulators provide the appropriate voltage levels to each component on the board, or using a Li-Po/Li

Ion battery via an onboard battery connector. All communication methods that mikroBUS™ itself supports are on this board (plus USB HOST/DEVICE), including the well-established mikroBUS™ socket, a standardized socket for the MCU card (SiBRAIN standard), and several user-configurable buttons and LED indicators. UNI Clicker is an integral part of the Mikroe ecosystem, allowing you to create a new application in minutes. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

UNI clicker double image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU

default

Type

8th Generation

Architecture

ARM Cortex-M4

MCU Memory (KB)

512

Silicon Vendor

NXP

Pin count

144

RAM (Bytes)

131072

Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

Force OFF
PA17
AN
UART Channel Selection
PE0
RST
UART Channel Selection
PE12
CS
NC
NC
SCK
NC
NC
MISO
NC
NC
MOSI
Power Supply
3.3V
3.3V
Ground
GND
GND
Force ON
PA4
PWM
Valid RS232 Signal Indication
PA26
INT
UART TX
PE4
TX
UART RX
PE5
RX
NC
NC
SCL
NC
NC
SDA
Power Supply
5V
5V
Ground
GND
GND
1

Take a closer look

Schematic

UART MUX 2 Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

UNI Clicker front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the UNI Clicker as your development board.

UNI Clicker front image hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click front image hardware assembly
SiBRAIN for STM32F745VG front image hardware assembly
Prog-cut hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click complete accessories setup image hardware assembly
UNI Clicker Access MB 1 - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
Necto image step 5 hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Necto image step 7 hardware assembly
Necto No Display image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Debug Image Necto Step hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After loading the code example, pressing the "DEBUG" button builds and programs it on the selected setup.

Application Output Step 1

After programming is completed, a header with buttons for various actions available in the IDE appears. By clicking the green "PLAY "button, we start reading the results achieved with Click board™.

Application Output Step 3

Upon completion of programming, the Application Output tab is automatically opened, where the achieved result can be read. In case of an inability to perform the Debug function, check if a proper connection between the MCU used by the setup and the CODEGRIP programmer has been established. A detailed explanation of the CODEGRIP-board connection can be found in the CODEGRIP User Manual. Please find it in the RESOURCES section.

Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for UART MUX 2 Click driver.

Key functions:

  • uartmux2_set_operation_mode - UART MUX 2 set operation mode function

  • uartmux2_set_channel - UART MUX 2 set channel function

  • uartmux2_send_data - UART MUX 2 data writing function

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

/*!
 * @file main.c
 * @brief UART MUX 2 Click Example.
 *
 * # Description
 * This library contains API for UART MUX 2 Click driver.
 * This example transmits/receives and processes data from UART MUX 2 clicks.
 * The library initializes and defines the UART bus drivers 
 * to transmit or receive data. 
 *
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 *
 * ## Application Init
 * Initializes driver and set UART channel module.
 *
 * ## Application Task
 * Transmitter/Receiver task depend on uncommented code.
 * Receiver logging each received byte to the UART for data logging,
 * while transmitted send messages every 2 seconds.
 *
 * ## Additional Function
 * - static void uartmux2_clear_app_buf ( void ) - Function clears memory of app_buf.
 * - static err_t uartmux2_process ( void ) - The general process of collecting presponce
 * that a module sends.
 *
 * @author Nenad Filipovic
 *
 */

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "uartmux2.h"

#define PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE 200

#define TRANSMITTER
// #define RECIEVER

static uartmux2_t uartmux2;
static log_t logger;
static uint8_t uart_ch;
static char app_buf[ PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ] = { 0 };
static int32_t app_buf_len = 0;
static int32_t app_buf_cnt = 0;

unsigned char demo_message[ 9 ] = { 'M', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 13, 10, 0 };

/**
 * @brief UART MUX 2 clearing application buffer.
 * @details This function clears memory of application buffer and reset it's length and counter.
 * @note None.
 */
static void uartmux2_clear_app_buf ( void );

/**
 * @brief UART MUX 2 data reading function.
 * @details This function reads data from device and concats data to application buffer.
 *
 * @return @li @c  0 - Read some data.
 *         @li @c -1 - Nothing is read.
 *         @li @c -2 - Application buffer overflow.
 *
 * See #err_t definition for detailed explanation.
 * @note None.
 */
static err_t uartmux2_process ( void );

void application_init ( void ) {
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;  /**< Logger config object. */
    uartmux2_cfg_t uartmux2_cfg;  /**< Click config object. */

    /** 
     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
     */
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_printf( &logger, "\r\n Application Init \r\n" );

    // Click initialization.

    uartmux2_cfg_setup( &uartmux2_cfg );
    UARTMUX2_MAP_MIKROBUS( uartmux2_cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    err_t init_flag  = uartmux2_init( &uartmux2, &uartmux2_cfg );
    if ( init_flag == UART_ERROR ) {
        log_error( &logger, " Application Init Error. " );
        log_info( &logger, " Please, run program again... " );

        for ( ; ; );
    }

    uartmux2_default_cfg ( &uartmux2 );
    app_buf_len = 0;
    app_buf_cnt = 0;
    log_printf( &logger, "\r\n Application Task \r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "------------------\r\n" );
    Delay_ms( 500 );
    
    #ifdef TRANSMITTER
    
        log_printf( &logger, "    Send data:    \r\n" );
        log_printf( &logger, "      mikroE      \r\n" );
        log_printf( &logger, "------------------\r\n" );
        log_printf( &logger, "  Transmit data   \r\n" );
        Delay_ms( 1000 );

    #endif

    #ifdef RECIEVER

        uart_ch = UARTMUX2_CHANNEL_0;
        log_printf( &logger, "   Receive data  \r\n" );
        log_printf( &logger, "      UART%u \r\n", ( uint16_t ) uart_ch );
        uartmux2_set_channel( &uartmux2, uart_ch );
        Delay_ms( 2000 );
    
    #endif
        
    log_printf( &logger, "------------------\r\n" );
}

void application_task ( void ) {
    #ifdef TRANSMITTER
    
    for ( uart_ch = UARTMUX2_CHANNEL_0; uart_ch <= UARTMUX2_CHANNEL_3; uart_ch++ ) {
        uartmux2_set_channel( &uartmux2, uart_ch );
        Delay_ms( 100 );
        uartmux2_send_data( &uartmux2, demo_message );
        log_printf( &logger, "  UART%u : ", ( uint16_t ) uart_ch ); 
    
        for ( uint8_t cnt = 0; cnt < 9; cnt ++ ) {
            log_printf( &logger, "%c", demo_message[ cnt ] );
            Delay_ms( 100 );
        }     
    }
    
    log_printf( &logger, "------------------\r\n" );
    Delay_ms( 100 );
    
    
    #endif
    
    #ifdef RECIEVER
    
    uartmux2_process( );

    if ( app_buf_len > 0 ) {
        log_printf( &logger, "%s", app_buf );
        uartmux2_clear_app_buf(  );
    }
    
    #endif
}

void main ( void ) {
    application_init( );

    for ( ; ; ) {
        application_task( );
    }
}

static void uartmux2_clear_app_buf ( void ) {
    memset( app_buf, 0, app_buf_len );
    app_buf_len = 0;
    app_buf_cnt = 0;
}

static err_t uartmux2_process ( void ) {
    int32_t rx_size;
    char rx_buff[ PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ] = { 0 };

    rx_size = uartmux2_generic_read( &uartmux2, rx_buff, PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE );

    if ( rx_size > 0 ) {
        int32_t buf_cnt = 0;

        if ( app_buf_len + rx_size >= PROCESS_BUFFER_SIZE ) {
            uartmux2_clear_app_buf(  );
            return -2;
        } else {
            buf_cnt = app_buf_len;
            app_buf_len += rx_size;
        }

        for ( int32_t rx_cnt = 0; rx_cnt < rx_size; rx_cnt++ ) {
            if ( rx_buff[ rx_cnt ] != 0 ) {
                app_buf[ ( buf_cnt + rx_cnt ) ] = rx_buff[ rx_cnt ];
            } else {
                app_buf_len--;
            }

        }
        return 0;
    }
    return -1;
}

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support

Resources