Intermediate
30 min

Create complex waveforms with AD9106 and PIC32MZ2048EFH100

Rock the Waves

Waveform 4 Click with Flip&Click PIC32MZ

Published May 27, 2023

Click board™

Waveform 4 Click

Dev.Board

Flip&Click PIC32MZ

Compiler

NECTO Studio

MCU

PIC32MZ2048EFH100

Unleash your creativity with a cutting-edge waveform generator

A

A

Hardware Overview

How does it work?

Waveform 4 Click is based on the AD9106, a high-performance, quad digital-to-analog converter (DAC) integrating on-chip pattern memory for complex waveform generation with a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) from Analog Devices. The DDS is a 12-bit output, up to 180 MHz master clock sinewave generator with a 24-bit tuning word allowing 10.8 Hz/LSB frequency resolution. This Click board™, by default, uses an onboard 125 MHz crystal oscillator as a clock source, which is also the maximum output frequency for this board. The high-speed, high-dynamic-range, multichannel complex waveforms generated by AD9106 are suitable for applications such as ultrasound transducer excitation, medical instrumentation, portable instrumentation, signal generators, and arbitrary waveform generators. Pattern data can include directly generated SRAM-stored waveforms, DDS outputs amplitude-modulated by SRAM, or DDS frequency tuning words from SRAM providing chirp or frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation. An internal pattern-control state machine allows the user to program the pattern period for all D/A converters, the start delay within the pattern period for the signal

output on each D/A converter channel, and the repetition rate of the pattern. The generation of a pattern is configurable via TRG routed to the PWM pin of the mikroBUS™ socket. A falling edge on the TRG pin starts generating a pattern, while the rising edge represents a request to terminate pattern generation. The AD9106 has a single frequency output and independently programmable phase shift outputs for each of the four integrated DACs. Besides, gain adjustment factors and offset adjustments are applied to the digital signals on their way into the four DACs. The two DAC outputs of the AD9106 are filtered by an RC network and then amplified via ADA4817-2, an operational amplifier that combines new architecture for FET input operational amplifiers with the eXFCB process from Analog Devices, resulting in an outstanding combination of speed and low noise. The other two outputs, without amplification, were routed on onboard headers labeled as I2 and I4. In addition to the positive supply voltage requirement, the ADA4817-2 amplifier also has a negative supply voltage, achieved by the ADM8829, a charge-pump voltage inverter used to generate a negative supply from a positive input

from Analog Devices. The output signal from the ADA4817-2 follows two paths. One path is routed to an output connector labeled OUT1, while the other is routed to an output connector labeled OUT3. On these connectors, the AD9106 can generate two types of signal patterns under the control of its programmable pattern generator: periodic pulse train waveforms that repeat indefinitely or periodic pulse train waveforms that repeat a finite number of times. This Click board™ communicates with MCU through a standard SPI interface to program the internal registers for complete control of the AD9106. Besides, it possesses additional functionality, such as a reset function implemented and routed at the RST pin of the mikroBUS™ socket, which resets all registers of the AD9106 to their default state. This Click board™ can only be operated with a 3.3V logic voltage level. The board must perform appropriate logic voltage level conversion before using MCUs with different logic levels. However, the Click board™ comes equipped with a library containing functions and an example code that can be used as a reference for further development.

waveform-4-click-hardware-overview

Features overview

Development board

Flip&Click PIC32MZ is a compact development board designed as a complete solution that brings the flexibility of add-on Click boards™ to your favorite microcontroller, making it a perfect starter kit for implementing your ideas. It comes with an onboard 32-bit PIC32MZ microcontroller, the PIC32MZ2048EFH100 from Microchip, four mikroBUS™ sockets for Click board™ connectivity, two USB connectors, LED indicators, buttons, debugger/programmer connectors, and two headers compatible with Arduino-UNO pinout. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology,

it allows you to build gadgets with unique functionalities and features quickly. Each part of the Flip&Click PIC32MZ development kit contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. In addition, there is the possibility of choosing the Flip&Click PIC32MZ programming method, using the chipKIT bootloader (Arduino-style development environment) or our USB HID bootloader using mikroC, mikroBasic, and mikroPascal for PIC32. This kit includes a clean and regulated power supply block through the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector. All communication

methods that mikroBUS™ itself supports are on this board, including the well-established mikroBUS™ socket, user-configurable buttons, and LED indicators. Flip&Click PIC32MZ development kit allows you to create a new application in minutes. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

Flip&Click PIC32MZ double image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU

default

Architecture

PIC32

MCU Memory (KB)

2048

Silicon Vendor

Microchip

Pin count

100

RAM (Bytes)

524288

Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

NC
NC
AN
Reset
RE2
RST
SPI Chip Select
RA0
CS
SPI Clock
RG6
SCK
SPI Data OUT
RC4
MISO
SPI Data IN
RB5
MOSI
Power Supply
3.3V
3.3V
Ground
GND
GND
Pattern Trigger
RC14
PWM
NC
NC
INT
NC
NC
TX
NC
NC
RX
NC
NC
SCL
NC
NC
SDA
NC
NC
5V
Ground
GND
GND
1

Take a closer look

Schematic

Waveform 4 Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

Flip&Click PIC32MZ front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the Flip&Click PIC32MZ as your development board.

Flip&Click PIC32MZ front image hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click front image hardware assembly
Prog-cut hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click complete accessories setup image hardware assembly
Flip&Click PIC32MZ MB1 Access - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
Necto image step 5 hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Flip&Click PIC32MZ MCU step hardware assembly
Necto No Display image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Debug Image Necto Step hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After loading the code example, pressing the "DEBUG" button builds and programs it on the selected setup.

Application Output Step 1

After programming is completed, a header with buttons for various actions available in the IDE appears. By clicking the green "PLAY "button, we start reading the results achieved with Click board™.

Application Output Step 3

Upon completion of programming, the Application Output tab is automatically opened, where the achieved result can be read. In case of an inability to perform the Debug function, check if a proper connection between the MCU used by the setup and the CODEGRIP programmer has been established. A detailed explanation of the CODEGRIP-board connection can be found in the CODEGRIP User Manual. Please find it in the RESOURCES section.

Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for Waveform 4 Click driver.

Key functions:

  • waveform4_set_frequency This function sets the sine and cosine (DDS) waves output frequency.

  • waveform4_set_gain This function sets the gain level of a desired channel.

  • waveform4_set_wave_output This function sets a desired output signal wave to the selected channel.

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

/*!
 * @file main.c
 * @brief Waveform4 Click example
 *
 * # Description
 * This example demonstrates the use of Waveform 4 click board.
 *
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 *
 * ## Application Init
 * Initializes the driver and performs the click default configuration which
 * resets the registers and sets the sine wave output with default gain and 
 * default frequency for all channels. After that it displays the list of
 * supported commands on the USB UART.
 *
 * ## Application Task
 * Depending on the command character received from USB UART it changes the 
 * signal frequency, gain or wave of the selected channel.
 *
 * @author Stefan Filipovic
 *
 */

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "waveform4.h"

static waveform4_t waveform4;
static log_t logger;

#define GAIN_STEP 0.05  // Gain step, used for increase/decrease gain commands.
#define FREQ_STEP 100   // Frequency step, used for increase/decrease frequency commands.

uint32_t freq = WAVEFORM4_DEFAULT_FREQUENCY;
float gain = WAVEFORM4_DEFAULT_GAIN;
uint8_t channel = WAVEFORM4_CHANNEL_1;
uint8_t wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_SINE;

/**
 * @brief Waveform 4 display commands function.
 * @details This function displays the list of supported commands on the USB UART.
 * @return None.
 * @note None.
 */
void waveform4_display_commands ( void );

/**
 * @brief Waveform 4 parse command function.
 * @details This function checks if the input command is supported and executes it.
 * @param[in] command : Command input, for more details refer to @b waveform4_display_commands function.
 * @return @li @c  0 - Success,
 *         @li @c -1 - Wrong command or command is not executed properly.
 *
 * See #err_t definition for detailed explanation.
 * @note None.
 */
err_t waveform4_parse_command ( uint8_t command );

void application_init ( void )
{
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;  /**< Logger config object. */
    waveform4_cfg_t waveform4_cfg;  /**< Click config object. */

    /** 
     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
     */
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_info( &logger, " Application Init " );

    // Click initialization.
    waveform4_cfg_setup( &waveform4_cfg );
    WAVEFORM4_MAP_MIKROBUS( waveform4_cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    if ( SPI_MASTER_ERROR == waveform4_init( &waveform4, &waveform4_cfg ) )
    {
        log_error( &logger, " Communication init." );
        for ( ; ; );
    }
    
    if ( WAVEFORM4_ERROR == waveform4_default_cfg ( &waveform4 ) )
    {
        log_error( &logger, " Default configuration." );
        for ( ; ; );
    }
    
    waveform4_display_commands ( );
    log_info( &logger, " Application Task " );
}

void application_task ( void )
{
    uint8_t command = 0;
    if ( log_read ( &logger, &command, 1 ) > 0 ) 
    {
        waveform4_parse_command ( command );
    }
}

void main ( void )
{
    application_init( );

    for ( ; ; )
    {
        application_task( );
    }
}

void waveform4_display_commands ( void )
{
    log_printf( &logger, "-------------------------------------------\r\n" );
    log_info( &logger, "- UART commands list -\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'+' - Increase frequency.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'-' - Decrease frequency.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'G' - Increase gain.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'g' - Decrease gain.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'S' or 's' - Select sine wave output.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'C' or 'c' - Select cosine wave output.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'T' or 't' - Select triangle wave output.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'P' or 'p' - Select positive sawtooth wave output.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'N' or 'n' - Select negative sawtooth wave output.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'1' - Select channel 1.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'2' - Select channel 2.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'3' - Select channel 3.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'4' - Select channel 4.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "'L' or 'l' - Display commands list.\r\n" );
    log_printf( &logger, "-------------------------------------------\r\n" );
}

err_t waveform4_parse_command ( uint8_t command )
{
    switch( command )
    {
        case '+': 
        {
            freq += FREQ_STEP;
            if ( freq > WAVEFORM4_MASTER_CLOCK )
            {
                freq = WAVEFORM4_MASTER_CLOCK;
            }
            log_printf( &logger, "Frequency increased: %lu Hz\r\n", freq );
            return waveform4_set_frequency ( &waveform4, freq );
        }
        case '-': 
        {
            freq -= FREQ_STEP;
            if ( freq > WAVEFORM4_MASTER_CLOCK )
            {
                freq = 0;
            }
            log_printf( &logger, "Frequency decreased: %lu Hz\r\n", freq );
            return waveform4_set_frequency ( &waveform4, freq );
        }
        case 'G': 
        {
            gain += GAIN_STEP;
            if ( gain > WAVEFORM4_GAIN_MAX )
            {
                gain = WAVEFORM4_GAIN_MAX;
            }
            log_printf( &logger, "Gain increased: %.3f\r\n", gain );
            return waveform4_set_gain ( &waveform4, channel, gain );
        }
        case 'g': 
        {
            gain -= GAIN_STEP;
            if ( gain < WAVEFORM4_GAIN_MIN )
            {
                gain = WAVEFORM4_GAIN_MIN;
            }
            log_printf( &logger, "Gain decreased: %.3f\r\n", gain );
            return waveform4_set_gain ( &waveform4, channel, gain );
        }
        case 'S': case 's': 
        {
            wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_SINE;
            log_printf( &logger, "Sine wave selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case 'C': case 'c': 
        {
            wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_COSINE;
            log_printf( &logger, "Cosine wave selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case 'T': case 't': 
        {
            wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_TRIANGLE;
            log_printf( &logger, "Triangle wave selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case 'P': case 'p': 
        {
            wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_POSITIVE_SAWTOOTH;
            log_printf( &logger, "Positive sawtooth wave selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case 'N': case 'n': 
        {
            wave = WAVEFORM4_WAVE_NEGATIVE_SAWTOOTH;
            log_printf( &logger, "Negative sawtooth wave selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case '1': 
        {
            channel = WAVEFORM4_CHANNEL_1;
            log_printf( &logger, "Channel 1 selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case '2': 
        {
            channel = WAVEFORM4_CHANNEL_2;
            log_printf( &logger, "Channel 2 selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case '3': 
        {
            channel = WAVEFORM4_CHANNEL_3;
            log_printf( &logger, "Channel 3 selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case '4': 
        {
            channel = WAVEFORM4_CHANNEL_4;
            log_printf( &logger, "Channel 4 selected.\r\n" );
            return waveform4_set_wave_output ( &waveform4, channel, wave );
        }
        case 'L': case 'l': 
        {
            waveform4_display_commands ( );
            return WAVEFORM4_OK;
        }
        default :
        {
            log_error( &logger, "Wrong command." );
            return WAVEFORM4_ERROR; 
        }
    }
}

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support

Resources