Intermediate
30 min
0

Bridge TTL/CMOS to RS232 using MAX3237E and PIC18F47K42

Where logic meets legacy: UART to RS232 made simple

RS232 2 Click with EasyPIC v8

Published Oct 19, 2023

Click board™

RS232 2 Click

Development board

EasyPIC v8

Compiler

NECTO Studio

MCU

PIC18F47K42

Unlock the full potential of serial communication with our UART-to-RS232 bridge, offering effortless signal conversion and data transfer capabilities

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Hardware Overview

How does it work?

RS232 2 Click is based on the MAX3237E, a 3V to 5.5V multichannel RS232, 1 Mbit/s line driver/receiver from Texas Instruments. This device allows communication at 1 Mbit/s and allows 5V logic levels, even when working with 3.3V power supply. However, there is an onboard SMD jumper that allows selection of power supply voltage between 3.3V and 5V, if there is a requirement. The MAX3237E IC consists of five line drivers, three line receivers, and a dual charge pump circuit with ±15 kV pin to pin ESD protection for the serial port I/O pins. Those charge pumps along with the external capacitors, allow the device to run from a single 3V to 5.5V supply, providing the required RS232

voltage levels, which can go up to ±15 V as per standard. The MAX3237E IC generates an RS232 voltage in the range of ±13 V and accepts RS232 signal levels in the range of ±25 V. To provide the minimal functionality of the UART interface, at least three data lines have to be used: RX line, routed to the mikroBUS™ RX pin (on the click board side), TX line, routed to the mikroBUS™ TX pin (on the click board side), and the GND. Otherwise, this device supports the full stack of RS232 control lines, excluding the Data Set Ready line (DSR). Other relevant RS232 bus lines routed to the mikroBUS™ pins are: Data Terminal Ready (DTR) - routed to the AN pin, Data Carrier Detect

(DCD) - routed to the RST pin, Clear To Send (CTS) - routed to the CS pin, Ring Indicator (RI) - routed to the PWM pin, Request To Send (RTS) - routed to the INT pin. All these lines, are actually control lines and are used optionally by the RS232 device. RS232 2 click features the standardized DE-9 connector for easy connection to the RS232 device. By switching the VCC SEL jumper, it is possible to select the power supply voltage for the RS232 2 click. Although it can work with 5V, the device will accept UART signals of 5V even while working in 3.3V mode.

RS232 2 Click top side image
RS232 2 Click bottom side image

Features overview

Development board

EasyPIC v8 is a development board specially designed for the needs of rapid development of embedded applications. It supports many high pin count 8-bit PIC microcontrollers from Microchip, regardless of their number of pins, and a broad set of unique functions, such as the first-ever embedded debugger/programmer. The development board is well organized and designed so that the end-user has all the necessary elements, such as switches, buttons, indicators, connectors, and others, in one place. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology, EasyPIC v8 provides a fluid and immersive working experience, allowing access anywhere and under any

circumstances at any time. Each part of the EasyPIC v8 development board contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. In addition to the advanced integrated CODEGRIP programmer/debugger module, which offers many valuable programming/debugging options and seamless integration with the Mikroe software environment, the board also includes a clean and regulated power supply module for the development board. It can use a wide range of external power sources, including a battery, an external 12V power supply, and a power source via the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector.

Communication options such as USB-UART, USB DEVICE, and CAN are also included, including the well-established mikroBUS™ standard, two display options (graphical and character-based LCD), and several different DIP sockets. These sockets cover a wide range of 8-bit PIC MCUs, from the smallest PIC MCU devices with only eight up to forty pins. EasyPIC v8 is an integral part of the Mikroe ecosystem for rapid development. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping and development thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

EasyPIC v8 horizontal image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU

PIC18F47K42

Architecture

PIC

MCU Memory (KB)

128

Silicon Vendor

Microchip

Pin count

40

RAM (Bytes)

8192

You complete me!

Accessories

DB9 Cable Female-to-Female (2m) cable is essential for establishing dependable serial data connections between devices. With its DB9 female connectors on both ends, this cable enables a seamless link between various equipment, such as computers, routers, switches, and other serial devices. Measuring 2 meters in length, it offers flexibility in arranging your setup without compromising data transmission quality. Crafted with precision, this cable ensures consistent and reliable data exchange, making it suitable for industrial applications, office environments, and home setups. Whether configuring networking equipment, accessing console ports, or utilizing serial peripherals, this cable's durable construction and robust connectors guarantee a stable connection. Simplify your data communication needs with the 2m DB9 female-to-female cable, an efficient solution designed to meet your serial connectivity requirements easily and efficiently.

RS232 2 Click accessories image

Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

Ready to Receive
RA2
AN
Carrier Receiving Indication
RE1
RST
UART CTS
RE0
CS
NC
NC
SCK
NC
NC
MISO
NC
NC
MOSI
Power Supply
3.3V
3.3V
Ground
GND
GND
UART RI
RC0
PWM
UART RTS
RB0
INT
UART TX
RC6
TX
UART RX
RC7
RX
NC
NC
SCL
NC
NC
SDA
Power Supply
5V
5V
Ground
GND
GND
1

Take a closer look

Schematic

RS232 2 Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

EasyPIC v8 front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the EasyPIC v8 as your development board.

EasyPIC v8 front image hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click front image hardware assembly
MCU DIP 40 hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click complete accessories setup image hardware assembly
EasyPIC v8 Access DIPMB 1 - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
NECTO Compiler Selection Step Image hardware assembly
NECTO Output Selection Step Image hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Necto DIP image step 7 hardware assembly
Necto image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Necto PreFlash Image hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After pressing the "FLASH" button on the left-side panel, it is necessary to open the UART terminal to display the achieved results. By clicking on the Tools icon in the right-hand panel, multiple different functions are displayed, among which is the UART Terminal. Click on the offered "UART Terminal" icon.

UART Application Output Step 1

Once the UART terminal is opened, the window takes on a new form. At the top of the tab are two buttons, one for adjusting the parameters of the UART terminal and the other for connecting the UART terminal. The tab's lower part is reserved for displaying the achieved results. Before connecting, the terminal has a Disconnected status, indicating that the terminal is not yet active. Before connecting, it is necessary to check the set parameters of the UART terminal. Click on the "OPTIONS" button.

UART Application Output Step 2

In the newly opened UART Terminal Options field, we check if the terminal settings are correct, such as the set port and the Baud rate of UART communication. If the data is not displayed properly, it is possible that the Baud rate value is not set correctly and needs to be adjusted to 115200. If all the parameters are set correctly, click on "CONFIGURE".

UART Application Output Step 3

The next step is to click on the "CONNECT" button, after which the terminal status changes from Disconnected to Connected in green, and the data is displayed in the Received data field.

UART Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for RS232 2 Click driver.

Key functions:

  • rs2322_set_cts - This function sets CTS pin state

  • rs2322_get_dtr - This function get DTR pin state

  • rs2322_send_command - Function for send command

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

/*!
 * \file 
 * \brief Rs2322 Click example
 * 
 * # Description
 * This example reads and processes data from RS232 2 clicks.
 *
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 * 
 * ## Application Init 
 * Initializes driver.
 * 
 * ## Application Task  
 * Reads the received data.
 * 
 * ## Additional Function
 * - rs2322_process ( ) - The general process of collecting presponce 
 *                                   that sends a module.
 * 
 * \author MikroE Team
 *
 */
// ------------------------------------------------------------------- INCLUDES

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "rs2322.h"
#include "string.h"

#define PROCESS_COUNTER 10
#define PROCESS_RX_BUFFER_SIZE 500
#define PROCESS_PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE 500

#define TEXT_TO_SEND  "MikroE\r\n"

// ------------------------------------------------------------------ VARIABLES

#define DEMO_APP_RECEIVER
//#define DEMO_APP_TRANSMITER

static rs2322_t rs2322;
static log_t logger;

static char current_rsp_buf[ PROCESS_PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE ];
static uint8_t send_data_cnt = 0; 
// ------------------------------------------------------- ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS

static void rs2322_process ( void )
{
    int16_t rsp_size;
    uint16_t rsp_cnt = 0;
    
    char uart_rx_buffer[ PROCESS_RX_BUFFER_SIZE ] = { 0 };
    uint8_t check_buf_cnt;
    uint8_t process_cnt = PROCESS_COUNTER;
    
    // Clear parser buffer
    memset( current_rsp_buf, 0 , PROCESS_PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE ); 
    
    while( process_cnt != 0 )
    {
        rsp_size = rs2322_generic_read( &rs2322, &uart_rx_buffer, PROCESS_RX_BUFFER_SIZE );

        if ( rsp_size > 0 )
        {  
            // Validation of the received data
            for ( check_buf_cnt = 0; check_buf_cnt < rsp_size; check_buf_cnt++ )
            {
                if ( uart_rx_buffer[ check_buf_cnt ] == 0 ) 
                {
                    uart_rx_buffer[ check_buf_cnt ] = 13;
                }
            }
            
            log_printf( &logger, "%s\r\n", uart_rx_buffer );
            
            // Storages data in parser buffer
            rsp_cnt += rsp_size;
            if ( rsp_cnt < PROCESS_PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE )
            {
                strncat( current_rsp_buf, uart_rx_buffer, rsp_size );
            }
            
            // Clear RX buffer
            memset( uart_rx_buffer, 0, PROCESS_RX_BUFFER_SIZE );
        } 
        else 
        {
            process_cnt--;
            
            // Process delay 
            Delay_ms( 100 );
        }
    }
    log_printf( &logger, "%s\r\n", current_rsp_buf );
}

// ------------------------------------------------------ APPLICATION FUNCTIONS

void application_init ( void )
{
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;
    rs2322_cfg_t cfg;

    /** 
     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
     */
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_info( &logger, "---- Application Init ----" );

    //  Click initialization.

    rs2322_cfg_setup( &cfg );
    RS2322_MAP_MIKROBUS( cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    rs2322_init( &rs2322, &cfg );
}

void application_task ( void )
{
#ifdef DEMO_APP_RECEIVER
    rs2322_process( );
#endif    
    
#ifdef DEMO_APP_TRANSMITER
    rs2322_process( );
    
    if ( send_data_cnt == 5 )
    {
        rs2322_send_command( &rs2322, TEXT_TO_SEND );
        send_data_cnt = 0;
    }
    else
    {
        send_data_cnt++;
    }
#endif    
}

void main ( void )
{
    application_init( );

    for ( ; ; )
    {
        application_task( );
    }
}

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support

Resources