Beginner
10 min
0

Achieve high-resolution inductance measurement capabilities with LDC1000 and STM32L432KC

Unlocking inductive secrets

LDC1000 Click with UNI-DS v8

Published Jun 19, 2023

Click board™

LDC1000 Click

Development board

UNI-DS v8

Compiler

NECTO Studio

MCU

STM32L432KC

Accurately measure the inductance change caused by the presence or movement of conductive targets within its magnetic field

A

A

Hardware Overview

How does it work?

LDC1000 Click is based on the LDC1000, a low-power inductance-to-digital converter from Texas Instruments. The LDC1000 simultaneously measures an LC resonator's impedance and resonant frequency by regulating the oscillation amplitude in a closed-loop configuration to a constant level while monitoring the energy the resonator dissipates. By monitoring the amount of power injected into the resonator, the LDC1000 can determine the impedance value and return it as a digital value. In addition, the LDC1000 can also measure the oscillation frequency of the LC circuit, used to determine the inductance of the LC circuit, also given in a digital format. The LDC1000 has a sub-micron resolution in short-range applications suitable for precise short-range measurements of conductive targets' position, motion, or composition. This Click board™ comes with a

detachable sensor (an LC tank comprising a 36-turn PCB coil and a 100pF 1% NPO capacitor).  The LDC measures the inductance change that a conductive target causes when it moves into the inductor's AC magnetic field to provide information about the target's position over a sensor coil. The inductance shift is caused by eddy currents (circulating currents) generated in the target due to the sensor's magnetic field. These currents make a secondary magnetic field that opposes the sensor field, causing a shift in the observed inductance, used for precise positioning of the target as it moves laterally over the sensor coil. The LDC1000 communicates with MCU using the standard SPI serial interface with a maximum frequency of 4MHz. It also has an interrupt pin routed to the INT pin of the mikroBUS™ socket, which can be configured in three different ways by programming

the interrupt mode register. An interrupt pin can act as a proximity switch with programmable hysteresis, a wake-up feature, or a data-ready pin indicating a valid condition for new data availability. Inductive sensing of this LDC is highly reliable where harsh conditions don't hinder the performance of LDC1000. Alongside the detachable sensor, the onboard INA and INB pins allow you to replace the provided sensor and solder your own. This Click board™ can operate with either 3.3V or 5V logic voltage levels selected via the I/O level jumper. This way, both 3.3V and 5V capable MCUs can use the communication lines properly. However, the Click board™ comes equipped with a library containing easy-to-use functions and an example code that can be used, as a reference, for further development.

LDC1000 Click hardware overview image

Features overview

Development board

UNI-DS v8 is a development board specially designed for the needs of rapid development of embedded applications. It supports a wide range of microcontrollers, such as different STM32, Kinetis, TIVA, CEC, MSP, PIC, dsPIC, PIC32, and AVR MCUs regardless of their number of pins, and a broad set of unique functions, such as the first-ever embedded debugger/programmer over WiFi. The development board is well organized and designed so that the end-user has all the necessary elements, such as switches, buttons, indicators, connectors, and others, in one place. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology, UNI-DS v8 provides a fluid and immersive working experience, allowing access anywhere and under any

circumstances at any time. Each part of the UNI-DS v8 development board contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. An advanced integrated CODEGRIP programmer/debugger module offers many valuable programming/debugging options, including support for JTAG, SWD, and SWO Trace (Single Wire Output)), and seamless integration with the Mikroe software environment. Besides, it also includes a clean and regulated power supply module for the development board. It can use a wide range of external power sources, including a battery, an external 12V power supply, and a power source via the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector. Communication options such as USB-UART, USB

HOST/DEVICE, CAN (on the MCU card, if supported), and Ethernet is also included. In addition, it also has the well-established mikroBUS™ standard, a standardized socket for the MCU card (SiBRAIN standard), and two display options for the TFT board line of products and character-based LCD. UNI-DS v8 is an integral part of the Mikroe ecosystem for rapid development. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping and development thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

UNI-DS v8 horizontal image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU

default

Type

8th Generation

Architecture

ARM Cortex-M4

MCU Memory (KB)

256

Silicon Vendor

STMicroelectronics

Pin count

32

RAM (Bytes)

65536

Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

NC
NC
AN
NC
NC
RST
SPI Chip Select
PA1
CS
SPI Clock
PB3
SCK
SPI Data OUT
PB4
MISO
SPI Data IN
PB5
MOSI
Power Supply
3.3V
3.3V
Ground
GND
GND
NC
NC
PWM
Interrupt
PA8
INT
NC
NC
TX
NC
NC
RX
NC
NC
SCL
NC
NC
SDA
Power Supply
5V
5V
Ground
GND
GND
1

Take a closer look

Schematic

LDC1000 Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

Fusion for PIC v8 front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the UNI-DS v8 as your development board.

Fusion for PIC v8 front image hardware assembly
Buck 22 Click front image hardware assembly
SiBRAIN for PIC32MZ1024EFK144 front image hardware assembly
v8 SiBRAIN MB 1 - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
NECTO Compiler Selection Step Image hardware assembly
NECTO Output Selection Step Image hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Necto image step 7 hardware assembly
Necto image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Necto PreFlash Image hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After pressing the "FLASH" button on the left-side panel, it is necessary to open the UART terminal to display the achieved results. By clicking on the Tools icon in the right-hand panel, multiple different functions are displayed, among which is the UART Terminal. Click on the offered "UART Terminal" icon.

UART Application Output Step 1

Once the UART terminal is opened, the window takes on a new form. At the top of the tab are two buttons, one for adjusting the parameters of the UART terminal and the other for connecting the UART terminal. The tab's lower part is reserved for displaying the achieved results. Before connecting, the terminal has a Disconnected status, indicating that the terminal is not yet active. Before connecting, it is necessary to check the set parameters of the UART terminal. Click on the "OPTIONS" button.

UART Application Output Step 2

In the newly opened UART Terminal Options field, we check if the terminal settings are correct, such as the set port and the Baud rate of UART communication. If the data is not displayed properly, it is possible that the Baud rate value is not set correctly and needs to be adjusted to 115200. If all the parameters are set correctly, click on "CONFIGURE".

UART Application Output Step 3

The next step is to click on the "CONNECT" button, after which the terminal status changes from Disconnected to Connected in green, and the data is displayed in the Received data field.

UART Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for LDC1000 Click driver.

Key functions:

  • ldc1000_get_proximity_data - This function reads the proximity data

  • ldc1000_get_inductance_data - This function reads the inductance data

  • ldc1000_get_int_input - This function reads the input voltage from the INT pin

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

/*!
 * \file 
 * \brief Ldc1000 Click example
 * 
 * # Description
 * This example showcases how to initialize and configure the logger and click modules and
 * read and display proximity and impendance data.
 *
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 * 
 * ## Application Init 
 * This function initializes and configures the logger and click modules. Configuration data 
 * is written to the: rp maximum/minimum, sensor frequency, LDC/Clock/Power registers.
 * 
 * ## Application Task  
 * This function reads and displays proximity and impendance data every 10th of a second.
 * 
 * \author MikroE Team
 *
 */
// ------------------------------------------------------------------- INCLUDES

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "ldc1000.h"

// ------------------------------------------------------------------ VARIABLES

static ldc1000_t ldc1000;
static log_t logger;

static uint16_t old_proximity;

// ------------------------------------------------------ APPLICATION FUNCTIONS

void application_init ( )
{
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;
    ldc1000_cfg_t cfg;

    old_proximity = 0;

    /** 
     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
     */
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_info( &logger, "---- Application Init ----" );

    //  Click initialization.

    ldc1000_cfg_setup( &cfg );
    LDC1000_MAP_MIKROBUS( cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    ldc1000_init( &ldc1000, &cfg );
    Delay_ms( 100 );
    ldc1000_default_cfg( &ldc1000 );
    Delay_ms( 100 );
}

void application_task ( )
{
    uint16_t proximity;
    float inductance;

    proximity = ldc1000_get_proximity_data( &ldc1000 );
    inductance = ldc1000_get_inductance_data( &ldc1000 );

    if ( ( ( proximity - old_proximity ) > LDC1000_SENSITIVITY ) &&
         ( ( old_proximity - proximity ) > LDC1000_SENSITIVITY ) )
    {
        log_printf( &logger, " * Proximity: %d \r\n", proximity );

        log_printf( &logger, " * Impendance: %f uH\r\n", inductance );

        old_proximity = proximity;

        log_printf( &logger, "--------------------\r\n" );
        Delay_ms( 100 );
    }
}

void main ( )
{
    application_init( );

    for ( ; ; )
    {
        application_task( );
    }
}

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support

Resources