30 min

Shape your signals with AD9834 and MK51DN512CLQ10

Frequency stimulus/waveform generation

Waveform 2 Click with UNI-DS v8

Published May 27, 2023

Click board™

Waveform 2 Click

Development board



NECTO Studio



Achieve sine and triangular outputs alongside frequency phase tuning and modulation with an advanced waveform generator



Hardware Overview

How does it work?

Waveform 2 Click is based on the AD9834, a 75 MHz low-power DDS device capable of producing high-performance sine/triangle/square outputs from Analog Devices. The AD9834 can have a broad range of simple and complex modulation schemes. These modulation schemes are fully implemented in the digital domain, allowing the accurate realization of complex modulation algorithms using DSP techniques. It contains a 16-bit control register accessible through the SPI serial interface that sets up the AD9834 as the user wants to operate it. The internal circuitry of the AD9834 consists of a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO), frequency and phase modulators, SIN ROM, a DAC, a comparator, and a regulator. The outputs of the AD9834 are filtered by an RC network and then amplified via THS4551, a differential amplifier that offers an easy interface from single-ended sources to the differential output required by high-precision

analog-to-digital converters from Texas Instruments.The output signal from the AD9834 follows two paths. One path is routed to an output connector labeled as Signal Out when the output waveform of the generator is sinusoidal or triangular, while the other path, routed to an output connector labeled as Square Out, is used when the output waveform of the generator is square. In addition to the positive supply voltage requirement, the THS4551 amplifier also has a negative supply voltage, achieved by the ADM8829, a charge-pump voltage inverter used to generate a negative supply from a positive input from Analog Devices. This Click board™ also has an external oscillator of 75MHz, enabled by the EN pin of the mikroBUS™ socket, and represents the maximum frequency that the AD9834 can accept. The 75MHz clock produces the cleanest possible Sine waveform at high frequencies, while the low frequencies create

errors. In addition to these features, the Waveform 2 Click also has an EEPROM memory IC the 24AA64, an i2C configurable 64K serial EEPROM from Microchip that can be used for various storage applications. The Waveform 2 Click communicates with MCU using the 3-Wire SPI serial interface compatible with standard SPI, QSPI™, and MICROWIRE™ and operates at clock rates up to 40 MHz. Besides, it possesses additional functionality such as reset function, necessary during AD9834 initialization, implemented and routed at the RST pin of the mikroBUS™ socket. This Click board™ can only be operated with a 3.3V logic voltage level. The board must perform appropriate logic voltage level conversion before using MCUs with different logic levels. However, the Click board™ comes equipped with a library containing functions and an example code that can be used as a reference for further development.

Waveform 2 Click top side image
Waveform 2 Click lateral side image
Waveform 2 Click bottom side image

Features overview

Development board

UNI-DS v8 is a development board specially designed for the needs of rapid development of embedded applications. It supports a wide range of microcontrollers, such as different STM32, Kinetis, TIVA, CEC, MSP, PIC, dsPIC, PIC32, and AVR MCUs regardless of their number of pins, and a broad set of unique functions, such as the first-ever embedded debugger/programmer over WiFi. The development board is well organized and designed so that the end-user has all the necessary elements, such as switches, buttons, indicators, connectors, and others, in one place. Thanks to innovative manufacturing technology, UNI-DS v8 provides a fluid and immersive working experience, allowing access anywhere and under any

circumstances at any time. Each part of the UNI-DS v8 development board contains the components necessary for the most efficient operation of the same board. An advanced integrated CODEGRIP programmer/debugger module offers many valuable programming/debugging options, including support for JTAG, SWD, and SWO Trace (Single Wire Output)), and seamless integration with the Mikroe software environment. Besides, it also includes a clean and regulated power supply module for the development board. It can use a wide range of external power sources, including a battery, an external 12V power supply, and a power source via the USB Type-C (USB-C) connector. Communication options such as USB-UART, USB

HOST/DEVICE, CAN (on the MCU card, if supported), and Ethernet is also included. In addition, it also has the well-established mikroBUS™ standard, a standardized socket for the MCU card (SiBRAIN standard), and two display options for the TFT board line of products and character-based LCD. UNI-DS v8 is an integral part of the Mikroe ecosystem for rapid development. Natively supported by Mikroe software tools, it covers many aspects of prototyping and development thanks to a considerable number of different Click boards™ (over a thousand boards), the number of which is growing every day.

UNI-DS v8 horizontal image

Microcontroller Overview

MCU Card / MCU



8th Generation


ARM Cortex-M4

MCU Memory (KB)


Silicon Vendor


Pin count


RAM (Bytes)


Used MCU Pins

mikroBUS™ mapper

SPI Chip Select
SPI Clock
Power Supply
I2C Clock
I2C Data

Take a closer look


Waveform 2 Click Schematic schematic

Step by step

Project assembly

Fusion for PIC v8 front image hardware assembly

Start by selecting your development board and Click board™. Begin with the UNI-DS v8 as your development board.

Fusion for PIC v8 front image hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click front image hardware assembly
SiBRAIN for PIC32MZ1024EFK144 front image hardware assembly
GNSS2 Click complete accessories setup image hardware assembly
v8 SiBRAIN Access MB 1 - upright/background hardware assembly
Necto image step 2 hardware assembly
Necto image step 3 hardware assembly
Necto image step 4 hardware assembly
NECTO Compiler Selection Step Image hardware assembly
NECTO Output Selection Step Image hardware assembly
Necto image step 6 hardware assembly
Necto image step 7 hardware assembly
Necto image step 8 hardware assembly
Necto image step 9 hardware assembly
Necto image step 10 hardware assembly
Necto PreFlash Image hardware assembly

Track your results in real time

Application Output

After pressing the "FLASH" button on the left-side panel, it is necessary to open the UART terminal to display the achieved results. By clicking on the Tools icon in the right-hand panel, multiple different functions are displayed, among which is the UART Terminal. Click on the offered "UART Terminal" icon.

UART Application Output Step 1

Once the UART terminal is opened, the window takes on a new form. At the top of the tab are two buttons, one for adjusting the parameters of the UART terminal and the other for connecting the UART terminal. The tab's lower part is reserved for displaying the achieved results. Before connecting, the terminal has a Disconnected status, indicating that the terminal is not yet active. Before connecting, it is necessary to check the set parameters of the UART terminal. Click on the "OPTIONS" button.

UART Application Output Step 2

In the newly opened UART Terminal Options field, we check if the terminal settings are correct, such as the set port and the Baud rate of UART communication. If the data is not displayed properly, it is possible that the Baud rate value is not set correctly and needs to be adjusted to 115200. If all the parameters are set correctly, click on "CONFIGURE".

UART Application Output Step 3

The next step is to click on the "CONNECT" button, after which the terminal status changes from Disconnected to Connected in green, and the data is displayed in the Received data field.

UART Application Output Step 4

Software Support

Library Description

This library contains API for Waveform 2 Click driver.

Key functions:

  • void waveform2_set_freq ( uint32_t freq ) - Function for setting the output frequency.
  • void waveform2_sine_output ( void ) - Function for setting the sine output.
  • void waveform2_triangle_output ( void ) - Function for setting the triangle output.

Open Source

Code example

This example can be found in NECTO Studio. Feel free to download the code, or you can copy the code below.

 * @file main.c
 * @brief Waveform2 Click example
 * # Description
 * This is an example that demonstrates the use of the Waveform 2 Click board.
 * The demo application is composed of two sections :
 * ## Application Init
 * Initialize the communication interface, preforming hardware reset, and configure the click board.
 * ## Application Task
 * Predefined characters are inputed from the serial port.
 * Depending on the character sent the signal frequency, waveform or amplitude
 * will be changed.
 * - Command:
 * [ + ] - Increase frequency
 * [ - ] - Decrease frequency
 * [ t ] - Triangle-shaped signal
 * [ s ] - The signal in the form of a sinusoid
 * - Additional Functions :
 * aprox_freq_calculation( float freqency ) - This function is used to calculate the aproximate 
 * value that will be written to the frequency set register.
 * @author Stefan Ilic

#include "board.h"
#include "log.h"
#include "waveform2.h"

static waveform2_t waveform2;
static log_t logger;

float value = 100000;
char demo_rx_buf[ 10 ];
char demo_tx_buf[ 10 ] = "MikroE";

 * @brief Aproximate frequency calculation function.
 * @details This function is used to calculate the aproximate value that will be 
 * written to the frequency set register..
uint32_t aprox_freq_calculation ( float freqency );

void application_init ( void ) {
    log_cfg_t log_cfg;  /**< Logger config object. */
    waveform2_cfg_t waveform2_cfg;  /**< Click config object. */

     * Logger initialization.
     * Default baud rate: 115200
     * Default log level: LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG
     * @note If USB_UART_RX and USB_UART_TX 
     * are defined as HAL_PIN_NC, you will 
     * need to define them manually for log to work. 
     * See @b LOG_MAP_USB_UART macro definition for detailed explanation.
    LOG_MAP_USB_UART( log_cfg );
    log_init( &logger, &log_cfg );
    log_info( &logger, " Application Init " );

    // Click initialization.
    waveform2_cfg_setup( &waveform2_cfg );
    WAVEFORM2_MAP_MIKROBUS( waveform2_cfg, MIKROBUS_1 );
    err_t init_flag  = waveform2_init( &waveform2, &waveform2_cfg );
    if ( ( I2C_MASTER_ERROR == init_flag ) || ( SPI_MASTER_ERROR == init_flag ) ) {
        log_error( &logger, " Application Init Error. " );
        log_info( &logger, " Please, run program again... " );

        for ( ; ; );
    waveform2_default_cfg ( &waveform2 );

    log_printf( &logger, "---- EEPROM test ----\r\n " );
    log_printf( &logger, ">> Write [MikroE] to address 0x0123\r\n " );
    waveform2_eeprom_write_string( &waveform2, 0x0123, demo_tx_buf, 6 );
    waveform2_eeprom_read_string ( &waveform2, 0x0123, demo_rx_buf, 6 );
    log_printf( &logger, ">> Read data: %s  from address 0x0123.... \r\n ", demo_rx_buf );
    Delay_ms( 1000 );
    waveform2_hw_reset( &waveform2 );
    Delay_ms( 1000 );
    log_printf( &logger, "---- Waveform set freqency ----\r\n" );
    int32_t freqency;
    freqency = aprox_freq_calculation( value );
    waveform2_set_freq( &waveform2, freqency );
    waveform2_triangle_output( &waveform2 );
    Delay_ms( 1000 );
    log_info( &logger, " Application Task " );

void application_task ( void ) {
    char rx_data;
    uint32_t freq_data;

    if ( log_read( &logger, &rx_data, 1 ) ) {
        switch ( rx_data ) {
            case '+': {
                if ( value > 200000 ) {
                    value = 0;
                value += 100000;
                freq_data = aprox_freq_calculation( value );
                waveform2_set_freq( &waveform2, freq_data );
                log_printf( &logger, ">> Increasing the frequency \r\n " );

            case '-': {
                if ( value < 200000 ) {
                    value = 400000;
                value -= 100000;
                freq_data = aprox_freq_calculation( value );
                waveform2_set_freq( &waveform2, freq_data );
                log_printf( &logger, ">> Decreasing the frequency \r\n " );

            case 't': {
                waveform2_triangle_output( &waveform2 );
                log_printf( &logger, ">> Triangle output \r\n " );

            case 's': {
                waveform2_sine_output( &waveform2 );
                log_printf( &logger,  ">> Sinusoid output \r\n " );

void main ( void ) {
    application_init( );

    for ( ; ; ) {
        application_task( );

uint32_t aprox_freq_calculation ( float freqency ) {
    uint32_t calculation;
    float WAVEFORM_OSC_FREQ = 50000000.0;
    float WAVEFORM_CONSTANT = 268435456.0; 

    calculation = freqency * ( WAVEFORM_CONSTANT / WAVEFORM_OSC_FREQ );

    return calculation;

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------ END

Additional Support